Republic of Fiji

Republic of Fiji

Country Report

Fiji became independent in 1970 after nearly a century as a British colony. Democratic rule was interrupted by two military coups in 1987 caused by concern over a government perceived as dominated by the Indian community (descendants of contract laborers brought to the islands by the British in the 19th century). The coups and a 1990 constitution that cemented native Melanesian control of Fiji led to heavy Indian emigration; the population loss resulted in economic difficulties, but ensured that Melanesians became the majority. A new constitution enacted in 1997 was more equitable. Free and peaceful elections in 1999 resulted in a government led by an Indo- Fijian, but a civilian-led coup in 2000 ushered in a prolonged period of political turmoil. Parliamentary elections held in 2001 provided Fiji with a democratically elected government. Reelected in May 2006, Qarase was ousted in a December 2006 military coup. Following years of political turmoil, long-delayed legislative elections were held in September 2014 that were deemed “credible” by international observers..


Located in Oceania, Fiji is an island group of 334 in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand.

Land Mass

18,274 km2

Official Languages

English, Fijian



Head of State

Ratu Williame Maivalili Katonivere




Parliamentary Republic


Fiji, endowed with forest, mineral, and fish resources, is one of the most developed and connected Pacific island economies. Earnings from the tourism industry, with an estimated 842,884 tourists visiting in 2017, and remittances from Fijian’s working abroad are the country’s largest foreign exchange earners.

Bottled water exports to the US is Fiji’s largest domestic export. Fiji’s sugar sector remains a significant industry and a major export, but crops and one of the sugar mills suffered damage during Cyclone Winston in 2016. Fiji’s trade imbalance continues to widen with increased imports and sluggish performance of domestic exports.

The return to parliamentary democracy and successful elections in September 2014 improved investor confidence, but increasing bureaucratic regulation, new taxes, and lack of consultation with relevant stakeholders brought four consecutive years of decline for Fiji on the World Bank Ease of Doing Business index. Private sector investment in 2017 approached 20% of GDP, compared to 13% in 2013.

Gross Domestic Product

USD 8,629 billion total
USD 9,800 per capita

Public Debt

48.9% of GDP

Direct Foreign Investment

USD 658.2 million

External Debt



USD 908.2 million


Fijian Dollar (FJD)

Import - Partners

USA 20.8%
Australia 14.9%
New Zealand 7.7%
Tonga 5%
Vanuatu 4.6%
China 4.5%
Spain 4.3%
UK 4.3%
Kiribati 4.1%

Export - Partners

Australia 19.2%
New Zealand 17.2%
Singapore 17%
China 13.8%

Unemployment Rate


Population below poverty line


IDD Country Code



Republic of Fiji