Republic of Nauru

Republic of Nauru

Country Report

The exact origins of the Nauruans are unclear since their language does not resemble any other in the Pacific region. Germany annexed the island in 1888. A German-British consortium began mining the island’s phosphate deposits early in the 20th century. Australian forces occupied Nauru in World War I; it subsequently became a League of Nations mandate. After the Second World War – and a brutal occupation by Japan – Nauru became a UN trust territory. It achieved independence in 1968 and joined the UN in 1999 as the world’s smallest independent republic.


The Republic of Nauru is an island in the South Pacific Ocean, south of the Marshall Islands.


Land Mass

21 km2

Official Languages

English, Nauruan

Population (2019)


Head of State





Parliamentary Republic


Revenues of this tiny island – a coral atoll with a land area of 21 square kilometers – traditionally have come from exports of phosphates. Few other resources exist, with most necessities being imported, mainly from Australia, its former occupier and later major source of support. Primary reserves of phosphates were exhausted and mining ceased in 2006, but mining of a deeper layer of “secondary phosphate” in the interior of the island began the following year. The secondary phosphate deposits may last another 30 years. Earnings from Nauru’s export of phosphate remains an important source of income. Few comprehensive statistics on the Nauru economy exist; estimates of Nauru’s GDP vary widely.

The rehabilitation of mined land and the replacement of income from phosphates are serious long-term problems. In anticipation of the exhaustion of Nauru’s phosphate deposits, substantial amounts of phosphate income were invested in trust funds to help cushion the transition and provide for Nauru’s economic future. Although revenue sources for government are limited, the opening of the Australian Regional Processing Center for asylum seekers since 2012 has sparked growth in the economy. Revenue derived from fishing licenses under the “vessel day scheme” has also boosted government income. Housing, hospitals, and other capital plant are deteriorating. The cost to Australia of keeping the Nauruan government and economy afloat continues to climb.

Gross Domestic Product

USD 196 million total
USD 3,600 per capita

Public Debt

62% of GDP

IDD Country Code


External Debt

USD 33.3 million


USD 125 million


Australian Dollar (AUD)

Import - Partners

Japan 16.6%
Australia 15.9%
South Korea 13.7%
New Zealand 5.7%

Export - Partners

Australia 67.5%
Fiji 9.2%
India 8.1%
Singapore 5.4%

Unemployment Rate


Population below poverty line



Republic of Nauru